IN DEFENSE OF FOOD PDF

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In defens e of food: an eater's manifes to / Mic hael Pollan. . That food and eating stand in need of a defense might seem counterintuitive at a. Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Jan 1, , Michael Pollan and others published In Defense of Food: An Eater's Manifesto. In Defense of Food. An Eater's Manifesto by. Michael Pollan. “A tough, witty, cogent rebuttal to the proposition that food can be reduced to its nutritional.


In Defense Of Food Pdf

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Ebook [site] In Defense of Food: An Eater's Manifesto DOWNLOAD EBOOK PDF site Click button below to download or read this book. 2 l in defense of food. 1S. R. 1L come in packages elaborately festooned with health claims, which brings me to another, somewhat counterintuitive, piece. 20 IN DEFENSE OF FOOD. FROM FOODS TO NUTRIENTS. 21 could say what was in them really? But nutrients—those chemi- cal compounds and minerals in.

Food is the one thing that Americans hate to love and, as it turns out, love to hate. What we want to eat has been ousted by the notion of what we should eat, and it's at this nexus of hunger and hang-up that Michael Pollan poses his most salient question: What follows in In Defense of Food is a series of wonderfully clear and thoughtful answers that help us omnivores navigate the nutritional minefield that's come to typify our food culture.

Many processed foods vie for a spot in our grocery baskets, claiming to lower cholesterol, weight, glucose levels, you name it. Yet Pollan shows that these convenient "healthy" alternatives to whole foods are appallingly inconvenient: His razor-sharp analysis of the American diet as well as its architects and its detractors offers an inspiring glimpse of what it would be like if we could a la Humpty Dumpty put our food back together again and reconsider what it means to eat well.

Starred Review. Pollan provides another shocking yet essential treatise on the industrialized Western diet and its detrimental effects on our bodies and culture. Here he lays siege to the food industry and scientists' attempts to reduce food and the cultural practices of eating into bite-size concepts known as nutrients, and contemplates the follies of doing so. As an increasing number of Americans are overfed and undernourished, Pollan makes a strong argument for serious reconsideration of our eating habits and casts a suspicious eye on the food industry and its more pernicious and misleading practices.

Listeners will undoubtedly find themselves reconsidering their own eating habits. Scott Brick, who narrated Pollan's The Omnivore's Dilemma , carries forward the same tone and consistency, thus creating a narrative continuity between the two books.

Brick renders the text with an expert's skill, delivering well-timed pauses and accurate emphasis. He executes Pollan's asides and sarcasm with an uncanny ability that makes listening infinitely better than reading. So compelling is his tone, listeners may have trouble discerning whether Brick's conviction or talent drives his powerful performance. All rights reserved. See all Editorial Reviews. Product details File Size: Penguin Books; 1 edition January 1, Publication Date: January 1, Sold by: English ASIN: Enabled X-Ray: Book Series.

Is this feature helpful? Thank you for your feedback. Share your thoughts with other customers. Write a customer review. Read reviews that mention michael pollan omnivores dilemma western diet mostly plants defense of food much and mostly common sense food industry eat food must read food is much whole foods eating habits grocery store heart disease corn syrup easy to read eye opening eater manifesto highly recommend. Top Reviews Most recent Top Reviews.

There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. Hardcover Verified download. I have a medical and science background Recently diagnosed with osteoarthritis at age 63 and weight pounds.

Read this book the first week of January Find it satisfying to eat no more than 4 oz of red meat times a week Have re-read the book Following Pollan's common sense advice Decided to eliminate all wheat and corn until I loose the weight I've set as a goal. Five weeks eating 3 meals a day Five weeks and 30 pounds lighter download this book, learn it, live it, tell your loved ones.

site Edition Verified download. Well-organized and well-written, this book covers how we got to where we are, downloading processed foods labeled with various health claims that are meaningless. Living in Switzerland decades ago, I said, half jokingly with no scientific basis in my head, that the cheese and chocolate was excellent because of happy cows, all roaming the hillsides looking content indeed. The author validates my offhand comment and explains the science behind it.

The author tells us that the nutrition content of eggs from grass-grazed eggs is vastly different from those of grain-fed hens. The author explains how the meat from grain fed cows is very different nutritionally from naturally grass-grazing cows.

Interesting how consideration and care for the animals in our food supply chain dovetails with our own health. This book is a must read for anyone who believes that what you eat effects your health and wants a simple framework for making better eating choices. This book was life-changing for me! I found Pollan's writing style to be thoughtful, clear, and relatable. And I can't tell you how many times "Eat food. I appreciate how he challenges so much of what we hear about diet -- every time researchers think they have the key to nutrition or weight loss, something new is discovered to turn it on its head.

After reading it, I was inspired to download a grain mill for my kitchen so I could grind my own flour and truly bake from scratch using whole grain flour and wrote a get-started guide to help others do the same. Being able to control what goes into my food has improved my health and energy.

I can't recommend this book enough. An Eater's Manual , which I'd recommend if you want a brief "just tell me what to do" book. But for more detailed information that may help you change your food and eating mindset, "In Defense of Food" is the way to go.

Paperback Verified download. If you've read other books on food, you'll find this to be written better but not containing much new information.

It's as if Pollan took the other information out there and regurgitated it in a more digestible format. Which can be a good thing, if you consider the huge tomes out there that are difficult to read.

Pollan covers baby formula and how it's essentially an experiment p. Pollan seems to be driving home the message that any food that purports to have health benefits really ought to be avoided, that it's "a strong indication it's not really food. The most impactful take-away as I finished was the idea that we really don't need books on what to eat. At one time, he tells us that nutritionism has done us no good, "At the behest of government panels, nutrition scientists, and public health officials, we have dramatically changed the way we eat and the way we think about food [ As a parent, I think I'd rather take this message, with a nice positive spin and which reinforces the message that we're smarter than we think we are, "most of what we need to know about how to eat we already know.

Some of them, for me, are doable. Some of them are not. What I can adopt is a mesh of several of his uidelines See all 1, reviews. site Giveaway allows you to run promotional giveaways in order to create buzz, reward your audience, and attract new followers and customers. And most of it has been processed to taste really good.

Michael Pollan: And the key to getting us hooked is our inborn craving for salt, sugar and fat. David Kessler, Former Commissioner, U. Food and Drug Administration: Take buffalo wings. What are they? You start off with the fatty part of the chicken.

Usually fried in the manufacturing plant first. That pushes a lot of fat into that chicken wing. Fried usually, again in the restaurant, that pushes more fat into that wing. That red sauce, what is it?

Sugar and salt. That white creamy sauce on the side?

In Defense of Food PDF Summary

Fat, sugar, and salt. What are we eating? They now make up some sixty percent of our diet. David Ludwig: The food industry makes its greatest profits through the most extensively processed foods. David Ludwig, Author, Always Hungry: The American farm system has turned into a calorie conveyor belt, that produces massive amounts of commodities to make sugary beverages, fast food, junk food very, very cheap.

Michael Pollan: People who eat a lot of processed food struggle more with health problems. Take bread, one of my own favorite foods.

Which you mix together, let rise, and then eventually bake. But the bread our ancestors ate was very different from what you find in most supermarkets today.

Flour used to be made by grinding grains like wheat between two big stones. This kind of flour—called whole wheat—contains all of the wheat seed, including the bran and the germ.

But whole wheat bread was usually dense and hard to chew. Removing the bran and germ made the flour white and the bread softer. But white flour was a luxury few people could afford—until the late 19th century, when a new technology came along.

David Jacobs, Prof. You could shake the bran and the germ of that grain off. It would fall down into the bottom, underneath the roller. You could feed that stuff to the cattle. Whoops, it turns out that that stuff is the good stuff. Michael Pollan: The bran and the germ are rich in many nutrients, including vitamins. And we love that. We love that sensation of sugar coming into our body. Our brains crave sugar. They live on glucose. And white flour is very stable. It will last on the shelf indefinitely.

And when you moved to white flour it was a great boon for the food industry because, you know, one giant mill could feed millions of people and send out flour that would last forever.

The one little problem is, as you made the flour last, you basically ruined it as a food source, because you were taking out all the nutrients, or most of them. You still had some starch and you still had some protein, but you lost most of the vitamins.

They were getting diseases, like beriberi and pellagra, which are often fatal. Nobody knew where they came from. This was a true miracle. Scientists, nutritionists, chemists were delving into the miracle of vitamins. And this information was delivered to an excited public, through newspapers, through magazines.

Michael Pollan: Before long, everyone was talking about vitamins. And food companies jumped on the opportunity. Animated boy archival: Golly, sure! Animated figure 8 archival: OK! A sandwich daily and two slices of Wonderbread every meal give you eight elements you need.

As much muscle building protein as roast beef. As much calcium for bones and teeth as cottage cheese. As much vitamin B1… Michael Pollan: The story of Wonderbread in a way is the story of the food system writ small.

Why do you need to add all these special vitamins to bread? So Wonder Bread was an amazing technology solving a problem that technology created.

Some of our dietary problems began long before the rise of modern technology.

When we invented agriculture, which gave us bread, we set in motion other changes that are still affecting our health today. We used to eat a lot of green plants. But once we started farming seed crops like wheat, rice and corn, they began to dominate our diet. The bulk of what agriculture does is grow seeds. Seeds are full of energy; they have lots of carbohydrate in them and protein. They have everything a new life needs. But green leafy plants are usually much better than seeds as sources of omega-3s.

Joseph Hibbeln, M. They have to be eaten. Michael Pollan: Traditional diets gave us many ways to get omega-3s. In addition to green plants, omega-3s are also plentiful in fish, which eat lots of plants in the ocean. Meat used to be a good source of omega-3s, because farmers fed livestock their natural diet, green leafy grass.

But now, most of the animals we raise for food are mainly eating corn and soy. But many of the foods we eat are quite rich in a rival group of fatty acids called omega-6s. There are lots of them in oils pressed from seeds, like soy and corn oil. Susan Allport, Author, The Queen of Fats: Omega-6s are the darlings of the food industry because they have a much longer shelf life than omega-3s do. There are only so many seats. Michael Pollan: And some scientists believe the loss of omega-3s is hurting our health.

Joseph Hibbeln: A deficiency in omega-3 fatty acids increases risk of heart disease death. They will have greater risk of major depression. Michael Pollan: But perhaps the biggest threat to our health comes not from losing a nutrient, but from flooding our bodies with one we seem powerless to resist.

Robert Lustig, M. We have figured out a way in this country to make sugar, sweeteners very, very cheap. When soda costs less than milk, or even bottled water, and is marketed as a normal thing to have with a meal or give to toddlers and young children, we have a problem. Walter Willett, M. Thomas Farley, M. We know that sugar has a lot of calories. But sugar causes other metabolic changes as well. Michael Pollan: Roughly half of the sugar in sweetened drinks and foods is a kind of sugar called fructose.

Robert Lustig: Fructose is the sweet molecule in sugar. We love it. Robert Lustig: And when your liver gets sick, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, liver disease, all start accumulating. Michael Pollan: Eating foods like potatoes, white rice or anything made from white flour, also floods our bodies with sugar. And flooding our bodies with glucose triggers the release into our bloodstream of a very important hormone called insulin. Robert Lustig: Insulin is necessary for life.

So what does insulin do? Well, it lowers blood sugar. The insulin goes up. And the various cells of the body will take up the glucose so that the glucose will come back down in the blood to normal.

Michael Pollan: But there is evidence that, eventually, too much sugar can push insulin to the breaking point—and lead to Type 2 diabetes. First there was a million things I could not pronounce. And then there was Flour Sugar… Michael Pollan: This video was made by The Bigger Picture Campaign, which brings together young poets and health care workers in the San Francisco Bay area to highlight the problem of diabetes.

Twice the rate of diabetes in African-Americans, Latinos as whites. Their lives are at stake. I think all of our lives are at stake. We will go to funerals that were caused because of food, and then turn around and eat the same food that put the person in the grave in the first place.

Only one in a hundred people. What if I told you that fifty years from now, one in three people… Young woman with orange hair archival: Wow Brandon Santiago archival: One in three people are going to have Type 2 diabetes. How would that make you all feel?

Michael Pollan: Type 2 diabetes. Heart disease. You know, a lot of misery has been created by this modern diet. So I started looking at the kind of diet that we evolved to eat. Food that comes not from factories, but from nature. My search took me back to the beginning of life. Lactation and milk. Everything that the infant requires has to be in milk. So milk is literally a comprehensive diet in one product.

All of the essential nutrients. Every vitamin, every mineral, every amino acid, every fatty acid that the infant needs has to be in milk. Daniela Barile, Assoc. If you have milk from day one and milk from day ten, the vitamin content, the lipid content, the protein, the carbohydrate is evolving to match the needs of the baby. Michael Pollan: But not all mothers can breast feed. Bruce German: Mothers have been unable to feed their babies throughout history.

Rima Apple: In the nineteenth century, infant mortality rates were extremely high. People were very fearful for the lives of their children. Particularly infants. Michael Pollan: Then, in the s, parents were offered a potentially life-saving alternative, when a German scientist named Justus von Liebig introduced the first commercial baby formula. He believed his product contained all the essential nutrients in breast milk. It quickly was followed by many copiers.

Michael Pollan: But our attempts to make a substitute for breast milk have taught us just how hard it is for science to mimic nature. Those early formulas were missing valuable nutrients. In , Bruce German and his colleagues discovered one of its secrets, when they solved a longstanding mystery.

Bruce German: One of the things that was absolutely astonishing is that human milk contains undigestible material. It goes right through them. When we looked at how much there was it was staggering. It was the third most abundant component in milk. Michael Pollan: it was a kind of complex sugar called an oligosaccharide. Bruce German: Mothers literally are feeding undigestible matter to the baby. Michael Pollan: German had a hunch. Maybe bacteria can. Because we know bacteria inhabit the intestine of all of us, including babies.

No growth at all. But then he found one. And at that point we began to realize the genius of milk.

In Defense of Food: Transcript

Michael Pollan: What Mills found was a little understood bacterium called bifidobacterium infantis. Bruce German: And when you look at breast fed babies, their lower intestine is full of just that bacterium. What could the bacteria do for the baby? And prevents germs that could cause disease from attacking the baby.

So it starts to grow and multiply and grows and multiplies until the baby is literally full of just this one group of bacteria. And no other bacteria can compete. No matter where we live, nature offers us an astonishing variety of healthy foods. We are omnivores. We live on six of the seven continents. We have managed to construct from what nature has to offer in all those different places—deserts, jungles, grasslands, forests—a healthy diet.

In the Andes mountains in Peru, the Quechua catch-u-a people eat mostly potatoes and grains, with a small amount of meat. In East Africa, the Masai thrive on a diet consisting mostly of cattle blood, milk and meat. And here in Tanzania, members of the Hadza tribe eat hundreds of different wild plants and animals. Although one in five Hadza babies still die before their first birthday, those who survive childhood tend to live long and healthy lives.

Things like cancer, things like obesity, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, very low rates. For the most part they are a very healthy population.

Michael Pollan: So what can we learn from the way they eat? The Hadza are some of the last people on earth who still get their food the way our ancestors did: by hunting and gathering. Alyssa Crittenden: For the bulk of our history, we were living like the Hadza. We were foragers.

Nyanzobe Mpanda [speaking Hadzabe, subtitles]: These are the foods we seek because they are the foods that are in our environment. They all have their times when we can eat them.

The seasons. We women gather every day. And we usually go in the morning. Michael Pollan: The women dig for roots called tubers. They also collect a fruit that falls to the ground from tall trees. The inside is kind of chalky and dry. To make it easier to eat, the Hadza pound it into a powder, and sometimes add water to make a sort of smoothie. This is a kind of food processing—but very minimal. While the women and children gather plant foods, the men go out hunting for meat, and searching for honey.

Alyssa Crittenden: Honey is the number one ranked Hadza food. Foragers will go to incredible lengths in order to access honey. Then I cut into the hive and get the honey. Michael Pollan: Imagine if we had to climb a tree every time we wanted a sugar fix from a Coke. Michael Pollan: The Hadza get their meat straight from nature too. Mahia Shandalua: When we get a large animal, we will skin it, we will start cutting it up. We will roast certain parts right there and eat.

Michael Pollan: On days when the Hadza kill a big animal, they eat lots of protein and fat. On other days, they might have mostly sugar or starch. I think that has something to teach us. Michael Pollan on stage: We are at a fork in the road when it comes to food. We have two options. One, surrender to the Western diet, stay on processed food, and junk food, and fast food, and wait for evolution to adapt us to it.

It will happen eventually. It should happen eventually. But there will be so much suffering. Not too much.

Mostly plants. And those seven words tell you all you need to know about how to eat in a healthy way. Vegetables and fruits.

Eat food. Which is to say, eat real food. I call it edible food-like substances. The Western Diet is in the center aisles. Go to the produce section. The healthiest food in the store is in the produce section. And there are no health claims. You go to the middle of the store where the food is just screaming about its whole grain goodness and there are cereals that are going to like save you from heart attacks.

Why is that? The quieter the food likely the healthier the food. Michael Pollan: Saying that we should eat food may sound obvious. But these days, much of the food industry is built on a different idea: that what really matters is eating the right nutrients. This way of thinking has a name: nutritionism.

Nutrition is one thing. Nutrition science is a science, but nutritionism is an ideology. Michael Pollan on stage: The big premise of nutritionism is that the most important thing about any food are the nutrients it contains, right? A food is the sum of its nutrient parts, which is basically how science studies food. So take an apple, or take carrots. So that seems kind of, okay, no big deal. But if you accept that idea, that the important thing about a food are the nutrients it contains, you suddenly find yourself dragged along to tenet number two of nutritionism.

And that is the idea that since nutrients are invisible, then it falls to experts to tell us how to eat. And so we have a priesthood that consists of doctors, who we consult about food, and various experts, and writers of books on nutrition and nutrition scientists of all kinds. And we defer to them.

Like most ideologies, nutritionism divides the world into good and evil. So that, in the nutrition area, there is always a group of blessed nutrients and a group of evil nutrients. Give me some examples of a blessed nutrient. Audience member: Kale. Michael Pollan on stage: Kale is not a nutrient. But thank you. Audience member 2: Vitamin C. Michael Pollan on stage: Vitamin C. Audience member 3: Fiber. Michael Pollan on stage: Fiber. Audience member 4: Antioxidants.

Michael Pollan on stage: Antioxidants. Audience member 5: Omega-3s. Michael Pollan on stage: Omega-3s, yes. So those are the blessed nutrients. And on the other side, there is always the evil nutrients we are trying to drive from the food supply. Saturated fat. High fructose corn syrup. Sugar in general. Evil nutrients. Michael Pollan: You go back to the turn of the last century, around , there was an ideology then that the great evil nutrient was protein.

The best-known critic of protein was Doctor John Harvey Kellogg——a member of a Christian denomination called the Seventh-Day Adventists, that promoted vegetarianism. People flocked to his sanitarium in Battle Creek, Michigan, to be cured of the gastrointestinal curse of the day. And constipation was, like, an obsession. Everyone was obsessed with constipation. Michael Pollan: Which Kellogg claimed was caused by bacteria in our colon that thrive on the protein in a meat-heavy diet.

They thought that it released toxins in your gut as it fermented and, and that would lead to cancer and all sorts of things. And people did the most insane things under the direction of this pseudo-science.

I mean go on all-grape diets for a day and eat 14 pounds of grapes and nothing else. Take yogurt enemas. And you were supposed to chew every bite a hundred times. That can interfere with the pleasure of a meal. Kellogg asked his brother Will to perform experiments to design healthier foods. They really wanted to dethrone protein, which was the morning meal. Eggs and bacon and sausage. And they thought that carbohydrates were the clean, blessed nutrient. One day in , the brothers stumbled on a discovery they hoped would transform the American breakfast: the flaked cereal—made mostly of carbohydrates.

First came wheat flakes. And then Will invented the corn flake——so wildly successful it would make him wealthy. You know, we look back on that and we think this is complete quackery. Well, I hate to say it, but someone will look back on us in a hundred years, and say much the same thing for a lot of our own nutritional practices.

We look at gluten the way they looked at protein. You know, we have millions of Americans now working to remove gluten from their diet. And when someone comes forward with a theory, we fall into line.

Male announcer archival: Because so many women are concerned about too much saturated fat, a great change in eating habits is taking place in homes all over America. Michael Pollan: The campaign to reduce fat in our diets is the best example yet of what can go wrong when the science of nutrition gets hijacked by the ideology of nutritionism.

Female announcer archival: Reducing fat in your overall diet can help make you healthier Michael Pollan: We spent thirty years in this country obsessing about fat. Woman in commercial archival: Health specialists recommend that children more than two years old begin eating a diet that is lower in fat.

Female announcer 2 archival: Eat foods that are low in fat. Male announcer 3 archival: Fat. Female announcer 6 archival: Fat.

Michael Pollan: Fat got a reputation as an evil nutrient back in the s… Man in commercial archival: Cheers. Michael Pollan: …when scientists began searching for the cause of what seemed to be a big increase in heart disease.

Finding the reason why became an obsession for a Minnesota physiologist named Ancel Keys. He and his wife Margaret, a biochemist, traveled the world studying heart disease. His studies in Naples made him think that that something was fat. Michael Pollan: Ancel and Margaret first visited Naples in They had heard that working class Neapolitans had less heart disease than their more comfortable neighbors.

So they decided to compare their diets. Sarah Tracy: Those who were more affluent loved their steaks. They loved their rich, creamy sauces.

Now amongst the working classes, they were eating lots of pasta, lots of vegetables, lots of fresh fruits, but they were missing the fat that was so common on the dinner plates of the upper crust of Neapolitan society.

The connection that Ancel Keys saw between fat and cardiovascular disease was cholesterol. Michael Pollan: This sticky substance is something our bodies make and need.

In Defense Of Food Summary

But scientists were finding that too much of it in the bloodstream clogged arteries. Sarah Tracy: Scientists could see cholesterol on the interior linings of arteries, especially the arteries of those people who suffered heart attacks.

Michael Pollan: Keys and others found that your blood cholesterol level went up the more you ate a particular kind of fat. Unidentified scientist archival: Saturated fat. Like palmitic acid, stearic acid. They are saturated with hydrogen Michael Pollan: Saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature. We get them most often from meat, milk, butter and cheese.

Sarah Tracy: As he looked around the globe, Keys found that the more animal fat, red meat and dairy products, the more heart disease within the population. Michael Pollan: Keys was practicing a statistical kind of science called epidemiology.

He was looking through data about large numbers of people, trying to find patterns. Marion Nestle, Professor of Nutrition, New York University: Epidemiology is very powerful in its way because it identifies trends and potential relationships. And they issue a set of guidelines called the Dietary Goals of the United States. The goals urged Americans to reduce fat to 30 per cent of the calories in their diets.

By eating less meat and less dairy. Marion Nestle: And never has a nutrition report been more controversial. Sarah Tracy: The meat industry would have none of that.

Marion Nestle: They went right to their friends on Congress. Congress held hearings.

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Sarah Tracy: And McGovern had to rewrite those guidelines. Because think about it. For the food industry, the mandate to reduce fat was an opportunity to sell new products—low in fat, perhaps, but often high in sugar. Sarah Tracy: The food industry could all of a sudden use low-fat or no-fat as a marketing strategy.

Why not download a highly processed, sugar-laden cookie that is fat-free? I could eat a million. I think I will.

But in fact what happened is fat stayed level and we ate a lot more carbohydrates. And that meant more calories. So we were kidding ourselves, and the industry was helping to let us kid ourselves. Blue Bonnet jingle singers archival: It looks like and cooks like the high-priced… Michael Pollan: Prodded by health experts, the industry also encouraged us to switch from butter to margarine.

Michael Pollan: Margarine is made from vegetable oils. They contain polyunsaturated fats, which were touted as blessed nutrients, because some of them can lower cholesterol. But to make vegetable oil hard enough to spread, you have to hydrogenate it. That means injecting hydrogen gas into the oil under controlled temperature and pressure. A process that changes some of the polyunsaturates into a kind of fat called trans fat.

Margarine and other vegetable oil products with trans fat were cheaper than butter, and stayed fresh longer. They became popular in baked goods, deep-frying, and all kinds of processed foods. For decades, we were told they were healthy alternatives to foods with saturated fats.

But in the s, scientists discovered that trans fats were in fact not very healthy at all. Although lower in saturated fat.

As it turns out people who had more trans fat in their diet had higher rates of heart disease and diabetes. Those margarines were about the worst things that people could be eating.

As time went on, many people began thinking that all fats were bad. Now fat is an essential ingredient. You will die without certain fatty acids soIyou need some fat. There are many people in the United States who think you should eat a no-fat diet. The scientists said the low fat campaign had oversimplified the science. They reported that replacing saturated fat with unsaturated fat did lower the risk of heart disease. But they noted that while a significant association between saturated fat and heart disease was found in two studies, it was not found in seven others.

And they pointed out that as people replaced fat with carbohydrates and sugar, the prevalence of obesity and diabetes grew dramatically. This was a tremendous public health mistake. And that mistake was getting so obsessed with a single nutrient. Cut out the fat. So of course people are confused. Michael Pollan: Scientists now understand that a healthy diet has to do with a lot more than one kind of food or nutrient. That is, the combination of foods that is the most important determinant of health.

We should talk about food. Probably some canned vegetables, rice, sugar, bread, cheese and processed meat. People make decisions based on what they can afford. And sadly, what they can afford, often, is cheap food. Things that will enable you to stretch your dollar as far as possible.

Michael Pollan: But all over the country, including here in the South Bronx, people are finding ingenious ways to get real food. Stephen Ritz in scene: Malik found a home. One for you. Do we want to take all the leaves off the plants? Students in scene: No Stephen Ritz in scene: No. Michael Pollan: Teacher Steve Ritz runs a network of food projects——which includes this hydroponic vegetable garden. Stephen Ritz in scene: You got a whole lotta crop going on here, sweetie.Michael Pollan on stage: Antioxidants.

You can see how quickly things can get complicated. Michael Pollan: But the big food companies, of course, still provide most of the food people eat.

Robert Lustig: Insulin is necessary for life. Enabled X-Ray: Finding the reason why became an obsession for a Minnesota physiologist named Ancel Keys.