TEMPESTAD EN LOS ANDES LUIS E VALCARCEL PDF

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It was an attempt to build a heterology, a constellation of positivities about the Other aimed at the discovering truths about the self de Certeau In addition, Bingham wanted to correct the history of the conquest of Peru, by providing counterevidence that would cast into doubt the narratives of the Spanish chroniclers.

Secondarily, there was an internal con- testation or competition between Harvard and Yale as to which school could extract sooner, and comprehend more fully, the secrets of Andean antiquity. But at the same time the expe- dition played an important role in and was read in relation to the Euro- American competition for hegemony in South America. Local versus Imperial Knowledge The Peruvian local intelligentsia also considered indigenous cul- tures and indigenous civilizations as an Other, but one that could be ap- propriated for a completely different political and cultural project.

Soon—he stated prophetically—not only North Americans but people from all the civilized nations would come to the Peruvian Andes i.

The YPE was a product of the intersection between industrial sponsorship, the demands of the U. This was made possible by the participation in and support of the project by U. The Na- tional Geographic was a key mediator between the producers the Yale group and the consumers the reading public of knowledge.

Thus, the U. In the age of mass consumer culture, some of the expansionist force of the enterprise of knowledge stemmed from consumption. Yale College contributed by elevating the project of an untenured professor to a humanistic endeavor of gigantic pro- portions. This conjunction of industry, university re- search, and mass consumption made the YPE possible.

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Modern technolo- gies of representation and distribution color photographs, lantern slides, and illustrated magazines ensured the engagement of both U. On the local side of the equation, none of these resources were present. Local university students were, no doubt, progressive and interested in the social and racial issues, but they had no means to carry out long-lasting and far-reaching explorations in Inca culture and history.

The university was simply producing lawyers and humanists who later if lucky would take positions in government through politics. It is also clear that local amateur collectors and early indigenistas developed an intricate connection between the living indigenous peoples and pre-Colombian civilizations. Ancient Peru held the keys to the reconceptualization of modern Peru.

The perambulations of local students across the mountains revealed also the possibility of rehearsing in the present the words and gestures of the past Inca poetry and theater. The indigenistas and their students, on the other hand, made this a central object of inquiry and concern.

Western enterprise of discovery. No theory or major insights were to be gathered from local intellectuals. Interdisciplinarity was hardly an issue, since the disciplines themselves were not yet established except for geography and history.

The very scarcity of research resources and expertise pushed these amateur investigators into new lines of inquiry. Historians studying colonial legal documents started to see the importance of the ayllu an agrarian, collective social structure of pre-Inca origin in Indian society and culture.

Others looked into the question of Quechua theater and language, trying to extract from them an alternative system of values and lifestyles. Still others paid attention to the tense relations between hacendados and Indian peasants and started to question the harsh reality of gamonalismo the tyranny of gamonales, or hacienda managers, over rural laborers.

From their fragmented views they would derive an alternative vision of the past and the future that would not be accepted in the great universities of the world until quite recently.

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Yale and the Universidad de Cuzco were two quite different insti- tutions. Yale was at the time an elite undergraduate college in the process of becoming a research university.

Andean archaeology was one of those areas. The Universidad de Cuzco, in contrast, was a small, provincial institution un- dergoing a process of modernization.

With limited funds and few degrees to offer one in the humanities, the other in law , its leaders could not afford to debate about the expansion of its curricula or the direction of its research. Final Comments Perhaps one could argue that local researchers and collectors, faced with an expansive and excessive imperial project of knowledge, withdrew into a defensive position, challenging the legality of the collection of evidence by the YPE.

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Or one might contend that, lacking the resources to carry out more comprehensive projects of knowledge, the local mestizo intelli- gentsia articulated different and innovative ways to approach their object 77 Salvatore.

Otras reformas. Segunda Fase y democracia — El paro general de Neoliberalismo Fujimori — Marco mundial. Neoliberalismo y derrumbe del campo socialista. Crisis europea y crisis de la deuda externa. Marco nacional. Shock de agosto de Los programas de alivio a la pobreza.

Los pisos siguientes del fujimorismo. Problemas con el medio ambiente.

Desborde popular y crisis del Estado. Carlos Delgado. Carlos Franco. The university was simply producing lawyers and humanists who later if lucky would take positions in government through politics.

It is also clear that local amateur collectors and early indigenistas developed an intricate connection between the living indigenous peoples and pre-Colombian civilizations. Ancient Peru held the keys to the reconceptualization of modern Peru. The perambulations of local students across the mountains revealed also the possibility of rehearsing in the present the words and gestures of the past Inca poetry and theater.

The indigenistas and their students, on the other hand, made this a central object of inquiry and concern. Western enterprise of discovery. No theory or major insights were to be gathered from local intellectuals. Interdisciplinarity was hardly an issue, since the disciplines themselves were not yet established except for geography and history. The very scarcity of research resources and expertise pushed these amateur investigators into new lines of inquiry.

Historians studying colonial legal documents started to see the importance of the ayllu an agrarian, collective social structure of pre-Inca origin in Indian society and culture. Others looked into the question of Quechua theater and language, trying to extract from them an alternative system of values and lifestyles.

Still others paid attention to the tense relations between hacendados and Indian peasants and started to question the harsh reality of gamonalismo the tyranny of gamonales, or hacienda managers, over rural laborers.

From their fragmented views they would derive an alternative vision of the past and the future that would not be accepted in the great universities of the world until quite recently.

Yale and the Universidad de Cuzco were two quite different insti- tutions. Yale was at the time an elite undergraduate college in the process of becoming a research university. Andean archaeology was one of those areas.

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The Universidad de Cuzco, in contrast, was a small, provincial institution un- dergoing a process of modernization.

With limited funds and few degrees to offer one in the humanities, the other in law , its leaders could not afford to debate about the expansion of its curricula or the direction of its research.

Final Comments Perhaps one could argue that local researchers and collectors, faced with an expansive and excessive imperial project of knowledge, withdrew into a defensive position, challenging the legality of the collection of evidence by the YPE. Or one might contend that, lacking the resources to carry out more comprehensive projects of knowledge, the local mestizo intelli- gentsia articulated different and innovative ways to approach their object 77 Salvatore.

Local versus Imperial Knowledge of inquiry Inca antiquity. Instead of collecting evidence for museum gal- leries, they started to construct something that today we would call social, ethnic, or cultural history.

For the time being, local knowledge opposed imperial knowledge with a series of possession rituals, with bureaucratic red tape, and with defamation campaigns in the press. In Bingham returned to Peru, invited by the Peruvian gov- ernment to inaugurate the Carretera Hiram Bingham, a modern highway that would allow tourists and scholars to reach the Inca citadel more easily. Under the auspices of the Good Neighbor Policy, a local intelligentsia more tolerant of U.

By this time, some of the indigenistas had made their peace with the empire and were ready to let bygones be bygones. And nobody was appalled to see U. Whereas in U.

Kroebe, Wendell C. Bennett, and John H. Those who, like Bingham, provided knowledge of Peruvian antiquity in a popular format or contented themselves with challenging the Spanish chroniclers were left on the margins of the progress of science. The same could be said about the leading indigenistas. This appears to be a contemporary rendition of the tensions between indigenistas and the Yale Peruvian Expedition.

This promise ironically echoes the cultural skirmishes of the s and s. At the end of the day, these Peruvian archaeological sites have been opened to international scientists and tourists—an accessibility that Bingham would have found desirable and necessary.

Notes 1.If Mexicans are nonentities, who, though, glosses upon their identity? There is no serious discussion of legal, historical, anthropological, or scientific discourse, nor is there any exploration of theater, the arts and crafts, museums, or architecture, all of which exhibited elements of the indigenista tableau during the period under study Cuadro internacional: del apogeo del Tercer Mundo a la crisis petrolera de At the end of , tension soared at such a level that a simple skirmish could ignite white violence against zoot culture.

Others looked into the question of Quechua theater and language, trying to extract from them an alternative system of values and lifestyles.